Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Chawnshang Redemption

This post was earlier cross-posted at Leonid Schneider's site, hence the unfrivolous tone. The version there is improved by Leonid's editing, background details and frame-story -- copied here, as is the way of my people.

The University of Rochester in USA is where the mitochondria researcher and a famous whistleblower Paul S Brookes works. Brookes used to run a short-lived website called, where he anonymously exposed dishonest scientists and their data manipulations, up until in 2013 his identity was exposed and the cheaters sued him. In 2012, Paul Brookes even published a blog post about his faculty colleague and head of the George Wipple Lab, Chawnshang Chang, who is affectionately called by his Rochester colleagues “Chainsaw”.

Brookes posted his analysis of manipulated data in Chainsaw’s papers on his now deleted website, under the headline “The ugly truth behind university PR hoopla“, and wrote:
“So, to summarize, the science behind this newly patented prostate cancer fighting wonder drug appears to be a little bit shady. My source on this story indicates that he’s written the University, the company involved, and the journals, but so far only the University has responded (with a generic “we’ll look into it” email).”

Chawnshang’s wonder drug, proudly advertised by University of Rochester, was as Brookes wrote
“a derivative of curcumin, an ingredient in spicy foods. As readers of this blog may already be aware, curcumin itself has come under fire recently, following the investigations into research misconduct by Bharat Aggarwal of MD Anderson Cancer Center.”
The blog post is long gone since, together with the entire website, but here are screenshots. In summer 2012, Brookes created two files, describing data manipulations in papers by Chainsaw Chang, and by his mentee and now Taipeh Medical University professor, Yu-Jia Chang.

These were the two files Brookes shared with his university: Chawnshang Chang
Yu-Jia Chang

Screenshots of Brookes’ now deleted blog post from 2013

Apparently there was an investigation in 2012 which however did not achieve much. In 2016, Brookes got knowledge of even more irregularities in a fresh paper from Chainsaw’s lab, and reported these also to the university authorities. The authors were asked to explain, the following images visualise the problems and authors’ explanations:

The full PowerPoint file submitted by the authors in their defence is available here. A Corrigendum was issued by the journal already in November 2016:
“Upon checking the figure in question, we found that, by oversight, during preparation of these multiple set of figure panels, some of the images that had been included were incorrect.”
Not much happened since, Chawnshang only got wealthier and stronger. His George Wipple Lab mostly employs Chinese or Koreans, like Chainsaw’s right-hand-woman, Soo Ok Lee. This creates certain power structures inside the lab which every university should actually avoid. Soo Not Ok Lee is highly productive and able to generate oodles of papers using nothing but Photoshop, so it seems. Chainsaw also seems not to mind how the papers in his lab are made, as long as they bring in cash into his own pocket.

A certain whistleblower contacted Brookes recently, about new evidence he published on PubPeer. On 4 December 2019, “John Smith” wrote in an email:
“In this July, I reported to URMC compliance office about many serious data falsifications, generated by Soo Ok Lee’s lab at URMC, appearing in 13 research articles across multiple journals. Too many Western blot bands and microscopic images were found duplicated or inappropriately manipulated to represent data for different experiments in her papers. I have revealed those data falsifications in the following PubPeer webpages.
Although recently URMC Dean finally replied that they will investigate this case, I still worry that Lee is able to continue fabricating data to do erratum because URMC still allows Lee working in her lab since I reported this case in July.“
The attached PubPeer record for Soo Not OK Lee exploded since, thanks to the efforts of Elisabeth Bik and others, also many new papers signed by Chainsaw were flagged. I approached the University of Rochester and its School of Medicine for a comment, and got this statement from the Vice-Dean for Research, Steve Dewhurst, regarding the failed 2012 investigation:
“we are aware of correspondence between the University and the editor of at least one major scientific journal at that time, related to concerns of the kind you have referenced. The outcome of that correspondence was determined by the journal and its editor.“
Dewhurst then clarified in a follow-up email:
“The University has consistently addressed matters of this kind, and does not take the view that authors should sort it out themselves. We have a policy and it is followed. We do not, however, publicly share the details of our confidential internal processes/investigations […] the University communicated directly with the journal editor“

As for the current growing PubPeer evidence of currently 45 papers, co-authored by Chainsaw, his henchwoman Not Ok Lee and the other one of the two George Wipple Lab investigators, Shu-Yuan Yeh, Dewhurst said this in his two emails:
“We are in the process of reviewing the concerns raised about the additional publications, and the specific authors that you have referenced […]
Please be assured that we share your concern about the integrity of the scientific record and any allegations of fraudulent data have been or will be subject to the University’s review.“
But now, Smut Clyde‘s take on the Rochester affair. Smut even made a table of 45 papers by Chainsaw Chang and Soo Not OK Lee, the list is available here.


Back in the days, the pinnacle of the bachelor professional life-style (if 1980s Esquire advertising was to be believed) was a modular surround-sound HiFi system. That is, a chrome scaffold holding tape-deck, FM receiver, pre-amp, amplifier and graphic equaliser as separate components, stacked vertically so the discriminating audiophile could slide any one out to replace it with an upgrade, between sips of Chivas Regal.

What evoked this flashback from a simpler time was a tower of Western-Blotted protein slices, presented as Figure 5(a) of Shen et al (2017) [14] with the implicit claim that they all came from a single experiment, with results comparable across columns and rows.

The problem is that two of those slices reappeared in Fig 4A of Zhu et al (2018) [17], in different company and identified as different proteins (though with the same column identifications). This helpful diagram is based on one by 'Parapolystichum Boivinii'.

Moreover, as 'Yponomeuta Spodocrossus' noted, this second stack of slices was dismantled in turn, its constituents becoming building blocks for Fig 6A of Xu et al (2018a) [19] and again for Fig 5(f) of Chen et al (2019a) [21]. If the HiFi metaphor doesn't appeal, think of the slices as blocks in a Jenga game instead.

A second helpful diagram from Parapolystichum Boivinii links the same stack from [14], through different pathways of protein-band repurposing, to Fig 4G of [17], and to 3B and 4B of Xu et al (2018b) [20]. The two diagrams could probably be combined but that sounds like work. It would be complicated by the third link from Fig 5A (and 2D) of [14] to 3B of Shen et al (2018) [18].

One gains the general impression that researchers in the Department of Radiation Oncology (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry) are not obsessive about the exact nature or provenance of WB slices, and keep them hugger-mugger and higgledy-piggledy in a drawer marked "Collage Supplies". Thus they appear in a succession of temporary context-specific coalitions rather than as persistent legacies of individual experiments.

When these concerns were raised in mid-2019, Soo Ok Lee (Research Associate Professor in the Department) took the trouble to respond, promising to investigate and amend the papers if necessary, for some reason using the email account of co-author Peter Keng (co-author and Professor Emeritus there). After that admirable and encouraging beginning, the group has observed nine months of radio silence, and one can only hope that their legal advisers are not charging by the hour.

#2 Peter C. Keng 
#3 Peter C. Keng 
By now the more astute readers know to expect another unsystematic stroll through the annals of the PubPeer post-publication peer-review system. Yes indeed, other trails of protein recycling criss-cross the entries, radiating out from Yang et al (2017) [16] to Yang et al (2016) [11] and Zhang et al (2017) [15]. Meeting other concerns along the way.

However, this record of reuse is not restricted to Western-Blot high-rise apartment blocks. We encounter cell spheroids with more than one identity (though there is no evidence that they held false passports as preparation for fleeing the country to evade arrests): Figures 5D from Lee et al (2016) [12] and 2(c) from Chen et al (2015) [7]...

Another bridge between [7] and [12] are these immunofluorescent cells of ambiguous origin.

While [21] leads to Chen et al (2019b) [22].

The vast and cool and unsympathetic intellects who contribute to PubPeer (only sporadically credited here) have scrutinised the author of interest's CV back to 2002/2003, when she was at the Department of Urology and Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. For instance, a Western Blot loading control recurred in three papers: DeMiguel et al (2002) [1], Lee et al (2003a) [2], Lee et al (2003b) [3]. The ultimate author, i.e. the Principal Investigator if the usual conventions of biomed authorship were observed, was Allen C. Gao. Gao was also the only author in common when the same loading-control band resurfaced in Chun et al (2007).

The period 2012-2015 in Dr Lee's CV was productive, with six papers coming to PubPeer attention, beginning with Tian et al (2012) [6].

Corrections have been provided for most and others may be on the way.
#2 Chiung-Kuei Huang 
I dwell on this section of the chronology as it provides an entry-point to the oeuvre of Chawnshang 'Chainsaw' Chang (or Zhang Chuanxiang in the old-fashioned way of transliterating 张传祥). Now Chang is (or was) an apex predator a dominant figure in the Rochester University academic ecosystem: Director of the George H. Whipple Lab for Cancer Research, and of his own laboratory nested therein, on faculty as well at the Wilmot Cancer Institute, researching the oncogenesis and treatment of prostate cancer. This topic exerts great fascination for old, wealthy men, whose interests are so easily confounded with the priorities of oncology research.

Prof. Chang holds a string of patents for a synthetic curcumin-based molecule ASC-J9 -- or more precisely, one patent has been registered in a lot of countries -- and founded Androscience Corporation to commercialise these patents. Though six years have passed since the most recent communiqué from Androscience. Any therapeutic success in prostate cancer trials has not been proclaimed as loudly as one might expect and the company's activities have focused on searching for any condition that Chang's rejigged curcumin might potentially treat: bladder cancer or liver cancer or muscular dystrophy or acne.

In further signs of Prof. Chang's eminence, he was recruited in 2010 to Taiwan to head the Sex Hormone Research Center at China Medical University Hospital. He was concurrently recruited to Tianjin Medical University in mainland China to head the less-modestly-titled Chawnsung Chang Sex Hormone Research Center. Some sources are under the impression that the former institution is also eponymous.

Nor should we forget the Chawnshang Chang Liver Cancer Center in Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou. Nor the titles and funding conferred upon Chang under the Thousand-Talents scheme -- first in 2011 at a Tianjin regional level, then at the national level in 2012.

So if I were in Chang's shoes lab-coat, with a CV as illustrious as his, three Oncotarget papers would not be my first choice as career high-points to build my academic webpage around:
Journal Articles
Chen Y, Sun Y, Rao Q, Xu H, Li L, Chang C. "Androgen receptor (AR) suppresses miRNA-145 to promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression independent of VHL status." Oncotarget.. 2015 Oct 13; 6(31):31203-15. [9]
Ou Z, Wang Y, Liu L, Li L, Yeh S, Qi L, Chang C. "Tumor microenvironment B cells increase bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL-8/androgen receptor (AR)/MMPs signals." Oncotarget.. 2015 Sep 22; 6(28):26065-78.
Xie H, Li L, Zhu G, Dang Q, Ma Z, He D, Chang L, Song W, Chang HC, Krolewski JJ, Nastiuk KL, Yeh S, Chang C. "Infiltrated pre-adipocytes increase prostate cancer metastasis via modulation of the miR-301a/androgen receptor (AR)/TGF-?1/Smad/MMP9 signals." Oncotarget.. 2015 May 20; 6(14):12326-39. [8]
The 1000-Talents program is intended to grow Chinese scientific capabilities in many ways, from luring expatriate scholars back home (temporarily if not permanently), and ensuring that Chinese doctorates are immersed in world-class research environments, to facilitating the theft of intellectual property -- though suspicions along those last lines are undoubtedly fueled by political xenophobia. In a sad postscript, Prof. Chang was accused in late 2014 of exploiting his Chinese colleagues and visiting students, treating them with disrespect:
He has multiple NIH research funds in the United States and experiments at the University of Rochester The room has 20-30 students for a long time. He is a Taiwanese, and he is extremely unfriendly to students from the mainland and squeezes their sweat and blood with extremely low wages. But for so many years, he has made crazy money in China. In addition to his full-time job in the United States and his position in Taiwan, he has deceived the Tianjin Medical University Thousand Talents Program at home, a Yangtze River scholar, a lecturer professor at the Shao Run Hospital in Hangzhou, and a visiting professor at Sun Yat-sen University. He often brags about how much he earns on the mainland. Such academic scammers should be exposed, hoping that relevant departments will find out how he, a full-time professor in the United States, fulfilled the obligations of the Thousand Talents Program, Yangtze River scholars, and recovered losses for the country.
If true, this could have contributed to a laboratory climate of No-fucks-to-give sloppiness -- as if minor authors lacked the motivation to be meticulous in assembling their diagrams. In the Chang-specific PubPeer threads (Soo Ok Lee-free) we find (for example) duplicated WBs...

Overlapping immunohistochemistry-stained tissue slices...

and overlapping Migration / Invasion matrigel assays.

Was no-one checking their work? I hasten to note that these stains on the departmental escutcheon go back before the 1000-Talent recognition, with 2002 as the earliest manifestation.

Anyway, to his credit, Prof. Chang is determined to see any minor errors made good. When the queries at PubPeer targeted his collaborations with Soo Ok Lee he circulated an email among past and present colleagues, requesting their assistance while appealing to their sense of familial loyalty. The word "omerta" did not occur.
Chiung-Kuei Huang, a George Whipple Lab alumnus (now at Brown University R.I.) is coordinating the responses to PubPeer, responding on the authors' behalf when he was not a co-author himself.

I am not sure of the current status of the C. C. Sex Hormone Research centre, which no longer features in the academic affiliations of researchers from Tianjin Medical University. Fortunately the Wayback Machine preserved copies of those triumphant TMU press releases about luring Chang into residence, or the 1000-Talent grant, as the originals are no longer extant.

Sometimes those audiophile sound-systems went completely overboard.


[1]. “Stat3 enhances the growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in intact and castrated male nude mice“, Fernando De Miguel, Soo Ok Lee, Wei Lou, Xiao Xiao, Beth R Pflug, Joel B. Nelson, Allen C. Gao.
The Prostate (2002) doi: 10.1002/pros.10110

[2]. “Interleukin-4 enhances prostate-specific antigen expression by activation of the androgen receptor and Akt pathway“, Soo Ok Lee, Wei Lou, Min Hou, Sergio A Onate, Allen C Gao.
Oncogene (2003) doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1206735

[3]. “Interleukin-6 promotes androgen-independent growth in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells“, Soo Ok Lee, Wei Lou, Min Hou, Fernando De Miguel, Lizabeth Gerber, Allen C Gao.
Clinical cancer research (2003) pubmed: 12538490

[4]. “ASC-J9 ameliorates spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy phenotype via degradation of androgen receptor“, Zhiming Yang, Yu-Jia Chang, I-Chen Yu, Shuyuan Yeh, Cheng-Chia Wu, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Diane E Merry, Gen Sobue, Lu-Min Chen, Shu-Shi Chang, Chawnshang Chang.
Nature Medicine (2007) doi: 10.1038/nm1547

[5]. “Susceptibility to autoimmunity and B cell resistance to apoptosis in mice lacking androgen receptor in B cells“, Saleh Altuwaijri, Kuang-Hsiang Chuang, Kuo-Pao Lai, Jiann-Jyh Lai, Hung-Yun Lin, Faith M. Young, Andrea Bottaro, Meng-Yin Tsai, Wei-Ping Zeng, Hong-Chiang Chang, Shuyuan Yeh Chawnshang Chang.
Molecular Endocrinology (2009) doi: 10.1210/me.2008-0106

[6]. “Targeting the Unique Methylation Pattern of Androgen Receptor (AR) Promoter in Prostate Stem/Progenitor Cells with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) Leads to Suppressed Prostate Tumorigenesis“, Jing Tian, Soo Ok Lee, Liang Liang, Jie Luo, Chiung-Kuei Huang, Lei Li, Yuanjie Niu, Chawnshang Chang.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (2012) doi: 10.1074/jbc.m112.395574

[7]. “IL-6 signaling promotes DNA repair and prevents apoptosis in CD133+ stem-like cells of lung cancer after radiation“, Yuhchyau Chen, Fuquan Zhang, Ying Tsai, Xiadong Yang, Li Yang, Shanzhou Duan, Xin Wang, Peter Keng, Soo Ok Lee.
Radiation Oncology (2015) doi: 10.1186/s13014-015-0534-1

[8]. “Infiltrated pre-adipocytes increase prostate cancer metastasis via modulation of the miR-301a/androgen receptor (AR)/TGF-β1/Smad/MMP9 signals“, Hongjun Xie, Lei Li, Guodong Zhu, Qiang Dang, Zhenkun Ma, Dalin He, Luke Chang, Wenbing Song, Hong-Chiang Chang, John J. Krolewski, Kent L. Nastiuk, Chawnshang Chang.
Oncotarget (2015) doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.3619

[9]. “Androgen receptor (AR) suppresses miRNA-145 to promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression independent of VHL status“, Yuan Chen, Yin Sun, Qun Rao, Hua Xu, Lei Li, Chawnshang Chang.
Oncotarget (2015) doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.4522

[10]. “Infiltrating T cells promote prostate cancer metastasis via modulation of FGF11→miRNA-541→androgen receptor (AR)→MMP9 signaling“, Shuai Hu, Lei Li, Shuyuan Yeh, Yun Cui, Xin Li, Hong-Chiang Chang, Jie Jin, Chawnshang Chang.
Molecular Oncology (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2014.07.013

[11]. “A FASN-TGF-β1-FASN regulatory loop contributes to high EMT/metastatic potential of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer“, Li Yang, Fuquan Zhang, Xin Wang, Ying Tsai, Kuang-Hsiang Chuang, Peter C. Keng, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen.
Oncotarget (2016) doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.10837

[12]. “IL-6 promotes growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CD133+ cells of non-small cell lung cancer“, Soo Ok Lee, Xiaodong Yang, Shanzhou Duan, Ying Tsai, Laura R. Strojny, Peter Keng, Yuhchyau Chen.
Oncotarget (2016) doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.6570

[13]. “Recruited mast cells in the tumor microenvironment enhance bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of ERβ/CCL2/CCR2 EMT/MMP9 signals“, Qun Rao, Yuan Chen, Chiuan-Ren Yeh, Jie Ding, Lei Li, Chawnshang Chang, Shuyuan Yeh.
Oncotarget (2016) doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.5467

[14]. “Radiation alters PD-L1/NKG2D ligand levels in lung cancer cells and leads to immune escape from NK cell cytotoxicity via IL-6-MEK/Erk signaling pathway“, Ming Jing Shen, Li Jun Xu, Li Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C. Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen.
Oncotarget (2017) doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.19193

[15]. “Simultaneous targeting of ATM and Mcl-1 increases cisplatin sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer“, Fuquan Zhang, Mingjing Shen, Li Yang, Xiaodong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C. Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen.
Cancer Biology & Therapy (2017) doi: 10.1080/15384047.2017.1345391

[16]. “Enhancing NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity to cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells via MEK/Erk signaling inhibition“, Li Yang, MingJing Shen, Li Jun Xu, Xiaodong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C. Keng, Yuhchyau Chen, Soo Ok Lee.
Scientific Reports (2017) doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08483-z

[17]. “Neuroendocrine differentiation contributes to radioresistance development and metastatic potential increase in non-small cell lung cancer“, Rongying Zhu, Xiaodong Yang, Xiang Xue, Mingjing Shen, Feng Chen, Xiaodong Chen, Ying Tsai, Peter C. Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research (2018) doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2018.09.005

[18]. “Increased infiltration of macrophages to radioresistant lung cancer cells contributes to the development of the additional resistance of tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of NK cells“, Mingjing Shen, Yongbing Chen, Lijun Xu, Rongying Zhu, Xiang Xue, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen.
International Journal of Oncology (2018) 10.3892/ijo.2018.4394

[19]. “In vitro -induced M2 type macrophages induces the resistance of prostate cancer cells to cytotoxic action of NK cells“, Lijun Xu, Mingjing Shen, Xiaodong Chen, Dong-Rong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C. Keng, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen.
Experimental Cell Research (2018) 10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.01.041

[20]. “Adipocytes affect castration‐resistant prostate cancer cells to develop the resistance to cytotoxic action of NK cells with alterations of PD‐L1/NKG2D ligand levels in tumor cells“, Lijun Xu, Mingjing Shen, Xiaodong Chen, Rongying Zhu, Dong‐Rong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C. Keng, Yuhchyau Chen, Soo Ok Lee.
The Prostate (2018) doi: 10.1002/pros.23479

[21]. “Radiation-induced glucocorticoid receptor promotes CD44+ prostate cancer stem cell growth through activation of SGK1-Wnt/β-catenin signaling“, Feng Chen, Xiaodong Chen, Yu Ren, Guobin Weng, Peter C. Keng, Yuhchyau Chen, Soo Ok Lee.
Journal of Molecular Medicine (2019) doi: 10.1007/s00109-019-01807-8

[22]. “Glucocorticoid receptor upregulation increases radioresistance and triggers androgen independence of prostate cancer“, Xiaodong Chen, Feng Chen, Yu Ren, Guobin Weng, Peter C. Keng, Yuhchyau Chen, Soo Ok Lee.
The Prostate (2019) doi: 10.1002/pros.23861

Easter Bunday, Lockdown edition

The intended recipient is all grown-up and domestic and responsible (the Frau Doktorin and I are failures as parents; I don't know where we went wrong) and is acquiring whiteware, and even a lawnmower.

Not yet delivered because the Post Office do not consider "transporting customised chocolate bunnies" as an Essential Service.

2019 2018 2017 etc.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Halo Payload

This post was earlier cross-posted at Leonid Schneider's site, hence the nonfrivolity and Explaining Voice. The version there is improved by Leonid's editing and explanation of the back-story.

Just when you were getting used to 'liposomes' and 'exosomes' entering the advertising lexicon of cosmetics and health quackery as signifiers of Sciencyness, along came niosomes and transfersomes and vesosomes and emulsomes. Anyone who identified these as "The cows from Cold Comfort Farm" has failed the test (the judges' decision is final).

In fact these are all additions to the menagerie of Drug Delivery research: different ways of sequestering a drug within a microscopic or nanoscopic vesicle with the idea of delivering the molecules to a specific tissue instead of wasting them all over the body. The drug might be encapsulated within cubosomes, for instance, in a form that can be snorted, then transported to the brain along olfactory neurons, thus dodging the blood-brain barrier. Because Drug Delivery straddles the boundary between nanotechnology and molecular biology, papers can feature faked diagrams from both fields - photoshopped electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. So far "noisome", "handsome", "toothsome", "quarrelsome" and "meddlesome" are not recognised as Drug Delivery terms, and now my ambition is to publish a paper introducing them all.

With that as context, here to pique the readers' interest are Figures 7 and 6 respectively from Jain et al (2012) [A2] and Choudhary et al (2016) [B12].

They are filigree pastel crystals, yet somehow woven or crocheted as well. One can only be sure that there is nothing biological about them, even though the figure captions identify them as the stomach mucosa of rats, bearing alcohol-induced peptic ulcers: treated in [A2] with ranitidine bismuth citrate and amoxicillin trihydrate (delivered by concentric nested liposomes) and in [B12] with rabeprazole and amoxicillin (delivered by "polymeric low-density microballoons"). The two papers have Govind P. Agrawal as a shared author.

What is one to make of Figures 1 of Rai et al (2016) [B11] and 1 of Sudheesh et al (2011) [C17]? The former depicts "Eudragit-coated dextran microspheres of 5-fluorouracil" (targeting the colon) while the latter are "tetanus toxoid-loaded aminated gelatin nanoparticles" (for vaccines). Close inspection reveals the 2011 version to be a swarm of replicated pairs and triplets of spheres. Yet these Bubbles Congeries [Lovecraft 1931] have enough in common besides the background that their single origin is undeniable.

The authors of both versions are affiliated to the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Dr. Hari Singh Gour University (Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India) but in different laboratories.

As the head of the latter laboratory, a Dr S. P. Vyas responded on the PubPeer thread for [C17]. Alas, his answers revealed little, except that he is not accustomed to questions... not even to questions of a rhetorical nature, that are asked into the void and not directly at him. Also, it is below his dignity to haggle with anonymous critics, although onymous critics are equally beneath his contempt.

#3 S. P. Vyas
#6 S. P. Vyas
All the above is what is called "foreshadowing" in literary circles, and we will return to it. I feel drawn to examine Dr Vyas' research oeuvre at Dr. H.S.G. University where advanced drug-delivery -somes promise cancer cures and next-generation oral or nasal vaccines. But a too-rapid ascent to his lofty eminence carries the risk of altitude sickness, and I prefer a more gradual approach. We begin with the ADINA Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (also of Sagar), headed by Dr Ashish Kumar Jain and source of the first of those crystallised / crocheted stomach linings [A2].

No-one can accuse the ADINA Institute of wasting research funds. Once they have created an image it receives maximum mileage. In a trilogy of papers, a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Phop variously depicts microballoons with payloads of Famotidine for the upper small intestine (Fig 3B, Choudan et al 2013 [A3]), or of Mesalamine chloride (1B, Jain & Jain 2013a [A4]); or perhaps they are phenylalanine-anchored liquid nanocarriers to treat AIDS-related encephalopathy (3B, Vyas et al 2015 [A9]). SEMs like this will be a recurring theme through the rest of this post. TEMs will be another.

These multiwalled carbon nanotubes conjugated with hyaluronic acid (to target colon cancer) were only used once, in Prajapati et al (2019) [A10]. But one cannot question the team's Photoshop skills. I recognise 3(a) as a homage to the back-cover album art for "Dance of the Lemmings".

Figures 7 from Bilthariya et al (2015) [A8] and 8 from Jain et al (2014) [A6] show tissue fluorescing after permeation with FITC. The only uncertainty is whether the tissue came from "inflamed joint sac" or "liver sac", and whether its entry into the cells was facilitated by particles of folate-conjugated albumin or lactosaminated-N-succinyl chitosan, laden with etoricoxib or acyclovir.

At left, in Fig 6 of Mishra et al (2014) [A7] the tissue was liver again, and the facilitating nanoparticles were comprised of chitosan and "glycyrrhizin conjugated low molecular weight chitosan". That is not definitive, though, as the images had lost focus so that (a) and (b) were barely recognisable.

[A6] and [A7] are also a convenient gateway to Figs 5(b) and 4(b), where the reason for manipulating one or other image (or both!) is unclear; perhaps it was for practice, or to create a Spot-the-Difference puzzle

The corresponding Figs 5(a) and 4(a) are identical, but they contain their own Spot-the-Embedded-Figures puzzle.

Fluorescent tissue samples is becoming another recurring theme in this post. Below, Figs 4 from Jain, Agrawal & Agrawal (2011) [A1], and 3B from Jain & Jain (2013b) [A5]. Both are a "fluorescence photomicrograph of rhodamine-123 labeled nanolipobeads formulation", designed to cure stomach ulcers by eliminating H. Pylori. The 2013 version was photoshopped with the triplicated nanolipobeads at the right either to defuse accusations of self-plagiarism, or because the authors really like the design aesthetic of 1970s Krautrock album art.

It is almost time to move on. To include everything covered in the relevant PubPeer threads would be exhaustive even by my standards, so out of great-souled mettā I have organised the haul from trawling those threads into a spreadsheet for interested readers to consult. The spreadsheet (like the Sources section at the bottom of this post) is divided for convenience into three sections, but boundaries are permeable:A.K. Jain was still affiliated to Dr H.S.Gour University for the first five of the 13 papers grouped together under his name, not yet having assumed leadership of the ADINA institute, and G.P. Agrawal (Jain's colleague or mentor, I assume) was co-author on those five. The two institutions enjoy a close, image-sharing association. There is no better way to illustrate this collegiality than Fig 5C of [A5], which had earlier appeared as Fig 4 of Jain et al (2009a) [C7] - filed below in the "Suresh P. Vyas" section.

The pedants and blackboard monitors and incorrigible scolds who hang out at PubPeer have devoted 15 threads to Dr Agrawal's papers, excluding the five co-authored with Jain, but including five co-authored with S. P. Vyas. My generosity is boundless and I created a diagram to help keep track of the co-authorship situation.

We have already seen one repurposed / modified image, the "Bubbles Congeries" shared between [B11] and [C17]. To continue in this vein, here's a SDS-PAGE blot (a form of protein-separating electrophoresis) showing how a nasal vaccine against Hep-B works by wrapping up HBsAg surface antigens within liposomes. More specifically, within "Immunoglobulin immobilized liposomal constructs" in one incarnation (Fig 4 from B. Tiwari et al 2011 [B7]) and within "Viral protein complexed liposomes" in the other (Fig 3 from S. Tiwari et al 2011 [B8]).

These fluorescing cell clusters demonstrate how HNGC1 tumor-cell clusters absorb Methotrexate better (or perhaps doxorubicin) when the drug is concealed inside Cationized Albumin Conjugated Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (or perhaps in Cationic ligand appended nanoconstructs), thus curing brain cancer. In Fig 13 of Agrawal et al (2011a) [B4], the cells are multiplied by zooming in on them at three different sizes.

In Fig 11 of Agrawal et al (2011b) [B3], the same cells pair up with 180°-flipped copies of themselves.

In general the Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratory staff are profligate with digital resources and their photoshops are not recycled so thoroughly. The next examples are one-offs. Boxes mark the cloned sections in Fig 7(a) of [B3], a TEM photomicrograph of SLN-DOX.

Much could be said about the thumb-print Solid-Lipid Nanoparticles (plain and CBSA conjugated) in Fig 5 of [B4]. It is easier, though, to bring up the wallpapered backgrounds with contrast enhancement:

In Fig 1(b) of [B7], the cluster at lower right reminds me of a stylised figure fleeing the scene after duplicating the liposomal constructs at centre. Enhanced contrast calls attention to glitched repeating margins around the lower-left corner.

Figs 2 of Yadav et al (2010) [B2] and 2 of Jain et al (2014) [B10] fell victim to extreme image compression at some stage, turning them into seas of JPG artefacts. The lack of resolution makes it difficult to comment on any similarities among the nanoparticles ("hyaluronic acid decorated PLGA nanoparticles for delivery of 5-fluorouracil" and "Adapalene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles gel" for acne treatment respectively), but areas of background have been copy-pasted.

Please be patient for one more example. In Jain et al (2010) [B1] the Solid Lipid Nanoparticles were mannosylated for better delivery of doxorubicin to brain tumours. The backgrounds of Figs 1(a) and (b) are surprisingly similar, while a 'T' motif -- a kind of watermark, perhaps -- repeats across 1(b).

The outlines of the NPs themselves only repeat in a few pairs and triplets. Still, it is clear from similarities among their internal structures that they were cut out from a handful of templates, as exercises in decoupage worthy of Matisse.

The PubPeer thread for [B1] came to the attention of the authors, with the lead / corresponding author replying first, before responsibility shifted to a minor co-author.

#2 Himanshu Agrawal
#5 Saikat Majumder
We are now sufficiently acclimatised, I think, for the final ascent from the "Agrawal Plateau" to "Peak Vyas". A ladder will help, by which I mean a molecular ladder bridging the gap between Mishra et al (2011) [B5] and Mishra et al (2014) [C23]. Both papers addressed the need for an mucosa-absorbed oral vaccine against Hep.B, but the trojan-horse nanoparticles concealing HBsAg proteins were constructed from Lectin-anchored PGLA in [B5] and from LTA-appended Chitosan in [C23]. Anyway, the two papers' SDS-PAGE blots have much in common - not just the molecular-weight lane.

Fig 5 of [B5] featured these views of the NPs adhering to Peyer's Patches in mouse intestine, though a comparison of the green nebulae of fluorescing NPs reveals A and B to be tailored versions of a single original. They are not false-color x-rays of ichthyosaur flipper bones.

Thus the reappearance of these frames in Fig 7 of [C23], now as chitosan NPs, are four uses of a single image. The Indian Council of Medical Research must be pleased by such thrift in the use of their research grants.

... Fig 1A of Tiwari & Vyas (2011) [C18] leaves us no wiser as to the nature of the NPs, which is not specified, though it does count as a fifth use (flipped through 180°).

At this point the comparison between Figures 1 of Paliwal et al (2011) [B6] and 1D of Paliwal et al (2013) [C8] is invidious, but I cannot resist the temptation to flog a dead horse with another dead horse. In [B6] the Solid-Lipid NPs are biomimetic and laden with a payload of lipid-conjugate low-molecular-weight heparin; in [C8] they are glyceryl behenate-cored and laden with methotrexate; perhaps that is why there are fewer of them.

"Dual targeted polymeric nanoparticles based on tumor endothelium and tumor cells for enhanced antitumor drug delivery" (Gupta et al 2014 [B9])? Or "lipidic nanoparticles for dermal delivery of fluconazole against cutaneous candidiasis" (Gutpa & Vyas 2012 [C19])?

Anyway, on to Dr Sureth P. Vyas. As one mark of his productivity, his H-Index is 64, and those 50 papers addressed in PubPeer threads span only some 10 years of his career.

Three of those papers were from a veritable scientific supergroup: the coauthors included Kailish C. Gupta, erstwhile Director of the CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research and no stranger to PubPeer in his own right. The last I checked, an inquiry into the research methods of Dr Gupta and others at CSIR-IITR had finished and a report was awaiting action... that was in January but people can be forgiven if events have distracted them. My point is that we have reached the highest levels in the Indian research establishment.

Pathak et al (2007) [C4]:

Pathak et al (2009a) [C10]:

Now [C10] and Pathak et al (2009b) [C9] addressed, respectively, the tumor targeting of "polysaccharide decked polyethylenimine based nanocomposites" and tumor gene therapy mediated by "Chondroitin Sulfate−PEI Nanoconstructs", with surprisingly similar results.

Anyway, Dr Vyas has progressed to the career stage where his energies and attention are divided among the usual senior academic roes of journal editing, and preparing Review Papers and Editorials and book chapters... not to forget his religious duties, shared with the ADINA Institute (as part of the collegial relationship foreshadowed above). This would leave little time for monitoring and mentoring, and it could easily be that the systematic image fabrication collected in the third section of the spreadsheet is all the work of the colleagues and students and outside contractors who contributed to the papers that Dr Vyas signed. This is consistent with the variations in the quality of forgery. It is also possible that the papers are sound other than their digitally constructed illustrations, and that the parade of cutting-edge game-changing vaccines, antivirals and cancer treatments promised therein are about to cut the game and change the edge any time now.

I'll pick a handful of examples at random. These look like more microballoons but according to Fig 15(b) from Asthana et al (2014) [C22], they are "Mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles for delivery of antisense oligonucleotides for macrophage targeting". Circles and boxes are not in the original.

Mangal et al (2011) [C16] and (2014) [C21] were yet another breakthrough in vaccine development, this time constructing mucoadhesive nanoparticles from (respectively) tri-methylated chitosan OR alginate-coated chitosan to conceal the proteins of Hep-B OR anthrax for administration by nose OR mouth. But like the scenery in a cheap video game, if you scan across the SEM images of Fig 1 from [C16], you find yourself back where you started. Much like reading this post. Moreover, the scenery from 1B also appears - with a longer cycle - as 1A in [C21].

In Fig 4 of Gupta et al (2012) [C20], "tristearin-based solid lipid nanoparticles stabilized by soya phosphatidylcholine" were coated with O-palmitoyl mannan, so they can arm macrophages with their payload of Amphotericin B and help them defeat leishmaniasis. The five examples of OPM-SLNs are identical, though rotated and resized.

"Transferrin modified pegylated albumin nanoparticles", for tumor targeting (Mishra et al 2006 [C2])? Or "YIGSR modified albumin nanoparticles", for targeted brain delivery of AZT (Mishra et al 2010 [C13])?

After all this you may be wondering what Niosomes look like. Fig 2B of Jain et al (2006) [C1] contains a few, encapsulating chitosan nanoparticles, and repeating themselves. Disappointingly, they are hard to distinguish from the bog-standard liposomes in 2A.

A general suspicion emerges from all this that when anyone in the Drug Delivery Laboratory needs a Western Blot or a microphotograph to illustrate some narrative, the standard practice is to fake it in Photoshop rather than conduct an experiment. Or you remix an existing image (real or forged) and relabel it... rotating it through 180° if you're dedicated to research integrity.

"DNA loaded cationic transfersomes" for a topical genetic Hep-B vaccine (Mahor et al 2007 [C3])? Or just plain liposomes (Tiwari et al 2009a [C12])?

This post is already too long but I want to finish on a high-note, having saved the best until last. A thread from [C12] leads to this Identity Line-up of SDS-PAGE blots, with enhanced-contrast versions below:

From L to R: "Protein antigen HBsAg in various liposomal formulations" for a nasal vaccine (Tiwari et al 2009b [C11]); "protein antigen Pfs25 ... extracted from gel core liposomes at 10, 30 and 90 Day" [C12]); and HBsAg released from"novel triblock copolymer-based NPs" (Jain et al 2009b [C6]) for nasal / plain / nasal vaccines against Hep-B / malaria / Hep B again.

Hold that in your mind while we examine these three enlargements of rat nasal mucosa samples, fluorescing because the rats were snorting FITC-labeled "glycol chitosan coated liposomes" for a DNA vaccine, which the cells absorbed. Fig 4C, Khatri et al (2008) [C5].

The two strands quickly meet in [C11], where Panel (C) reappeared twice in Fig 5(C/D) -- with one version rotated through 90 -- to illustrate the absorption of Gel-Core and LIGS (liposomes in situ gelling system).

From [C11], things get complicated... Fig 5(B) is variously rotated, chopped up and rearranged to create three of the four panels in Fig 5 of Jain et al (2010) [C14]. The team had moved on by then and were promising an oral vaccine so the tissues have become rat gastric mucosa, while the NPs are now composed of "PEG–PLA–PEG block copolymers".

Pressure of space means that one diagram must suffice to show some further metamorphoses of Fig 5, but the papers themselves are old friends by now. At left, a 2011 appearance in Fig 5 of [C16], home of that "cyclic scenery" SEM. Middle, a 2009 appearance in Fig 4 of [C6]. At right, Fig 3 from Pawar et al (2010) [C15], where poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles have been coated in chitosan for extra mucoadhesion and vaccinivity.

And as coda: don't forget [C21], the 2014 oral anthrax vaccine with the other cyclic-scenery images! By then the fluorescing tissues had morphed into Peyer's Patches from murine intestine, tagged with alginate-coated chitosan microparticles.

I have no idea how much funding has poured into ADINA and the Drug Delivery Lab to sustain their digital activities but the funders shouldn't hold their breaths waiting for cancer treatments or oral vaccines in return. Nor would I advise all those people who read and cite Jain's, Agrawal's and Vyas' papers to try replicating or extending their results.


[A2]. “Double-Liposome – Based Dual-Drug Delivery System as Vectors for Effective Management of Peptic Ulcer, Ashish K. Jain, Abhinav Agarwal, Himanshu Agrawal, Govind P. Agrawal. Journal of Liposome Research (2012) doi: 10.3109/08982104.2012.655284
[A3]. “Design of Buoyant Famotidine Loaded Microballoons Directed for Upper Small Intestinal Absorption Window”, Mahendra Chouhan, GP Agrawal, Ashish Jain , Sandeep Patidar. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science (2013)
[A5]. “Development and characterization of nanolipobeads-based dual drug delivery system for H. pylori targeting, Ashish Kumar Jain, Sunil Kumar Jain. Journal of Drug Targeting (2013) doi: 10.3109/1061186x.2013.784978
[A6]. “Lactosaminated-N-succinyl chitosan nanoparticles for hepatocyte-targeted delivery of acyclovir, Nivrati Jain, Vaibhav Rajoriya, Prateek Kumar Jain, Ashish Kumar Jain. Journal of Nanoparticle Research (2014) doi: 10.1007/s11051-013-2136-x
[A7]. “Glycyrrhizin conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for hepatocyte-targeted delivery of lamivudine, Deepak Mishra, Nivrati Jain, Vaibhav Rajoriya, Ashish K. Jain. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology (2014) doi: 10.1111/jphp.12235 issn: 0022-3573
[A8]. “Folate-conjugated albumin nanoparticles for rheumatoid arthritis-targeted delivery of etoricoxib, Upasana Bilthariya, Nivrati Jain, Vaibhav Rajoriya, Ashish Kumar Jain. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy (2015) doi: 10.3109/03639045.2013.850705
[A9]. “Targeting of AIDS related encephalopathy using phenylalanine anchored lipidic nanocarrier, Anil Vyas, Ankit Jain, Pooja Hurkat, Ashish Jain, Sanjay K. Jain. Colloids and Surfaces B Biointerfaces (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.04.049
[A10]. “Hyaluronic acid conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for colon cancer targeting, Shiv Kumar Prajapati, Ankit Jain, Chirag Shrivastava, Ashish Kumar Jain. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2019) doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.11.116

[B1]. “Mannosylated solid lipid nanoparticles as vectors for site-specific delivery of an anti-cancer drug, Ashay Jain, Abhinav Agarwal, Saikat Majumder, Narendra Lariya, Anil Khaya, Himanshu Agrawal, Subrata Majumdar, Govind P. Agrawal. Journal of Controlled Release (2010) doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.09.003
[B2]. “Development and characterization of hyaluronic acid decorated PLGA nanoparticles for delivery of 5-fluorouracil, Awesh K. Yadav, Abhinav Agarwal, Gopal Rai, Pradeep Mishra, Sanyog Jain, Anil K. Mishra, Himanshu Agrawal, Govind P. Agrawal. Drug Delivery (2010) doi: 10.3109/10717544.2010.500635
[B3]. “Cationic ligand appended nanoconstructs: a prospective strategy for brain targeting, Abhinav Agarwal, Himanshu Agrawal, Shailja Tiwari, Sanyog Jain, Govind P. Agrawal. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2011) doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.09.039
[B4]. “Cationized Albumin Conjugated Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Vectors for Brain Delivery of an Anti-Cancer Drug, Abhinav Agarwal, Saikat Majumder, Himanshu Agrawal, Subrata Majumdar, Govind P. Agrawal. Current Nanoscience (2011) doi: 10.2174/157341311794480291
[B5]. “Lectin anchored PLGA nanoparticles for oral mucosal immunization against hepatitis B, Neeraj Mishra, Shailja Tiwari, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Govind P. Agrawal, Suresh P. Vyas. Journal of Drug Targeting (2011) doi: 10.3109/10611861003733946
[B6]. “Biomimetic solid lipid nanoparticles for oral bioavailability enhancement of low molecular weight heparin and its lipid conjugates: in vitro and in vivo evaluation, Rishi Paliwal, Shivani R. Paliwal, Govind P. Agrawal, Suresh P. Vyas. Molecular Pharmaceutics (2011) doi: 10.1021/mp200109m
[B7]. “Immunoglobulin immobilized liposomal constructs for transmucosal vaccination through nasal route, Brajesh Tiwari, Abhinav Agarwal, Anil K. Kharya, Narendra Lariya, Gauravkant Saraogi, Himanshu Agrawal, Govind P. Agrawal. Journal of Liposome Research (2011) doi: 10.3109/08982104.2010.498003
[B8]. “Viral protein complexed liposomes for intranasal delivery of hepatitis B surface antigen, Shailja Tiwari, Sunil Kumar Verma, Govind P. Agrawal, Suresh P. Vyas. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2011) doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.04.029
[B9]. “Dual targeted polymeric nanoparticles based on tumor endothelium and tumor cells for enhanced antitumor drug delivery, Madhu Gupta, Gousia Chashoo, Parduman Raj Sharma, Ajit Kumar Saxena, Prem Narayan Gupta, Govind Prasad Agrawal, Suresh Prasad Vyas. Molecular Pharmaceutics (2014) doi: 10.1021/mp400404p
[B10]. “Adapalene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles gel: an effective approach for acne treatment, Amit K. Jain, Ashay Jain, Neeraj K. Garg, Abhinav Agarwal, Atul Jain, Som Akshay Jain, Rajeev K. Tyagi, Rakesh K. Jain, Himanshu Agrawal, Govind P. Agrawal. Colloids and Surfaces B Biointerfaces (2014) doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.05.041
[B11]. “Eudragit-coated dextran microspheres of 5-fluorouracil for site-specific delivery to colon, Gopal Rai, Awesh K. Yadav, Narendra K. Jain, Govind P. Agrawal. Drug Delivery (2016) doi: 10.3109/10717544.2014.913733
[B12]. “Stomach specific polymeric low density microballoons as a vector for extended delivery of rabeprazole and amoxicillin for treatment of peptic ulcer, Sandeep Choudhary, Ashay Jain, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin, Vijay Mishra, Govind P. Agrawal, Prashant Kesharwani. Colloids and Surfaces B Biointerfaces (2016) doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.01.048

[C1]. “Chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated vesicular systems for oral immunization: preparation, in-vitro and in-vivo characterization, Sanyog Jain, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, S. P. Vyas. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology (2006) doi: 10.1211/jpp.58.3.0003
[C2]. “Targeted brain delivery of AZT via transferrin anchored pegylated albumin nanoparticles, Vivek Mishra, Sunil Mahor, Amit Rawat, Prem N. Gupta, Praveen Dubey, Kapil Khatri, Suresh P. Vyas. Journal of Drug Targeting (2006) doi: 10.1080/10611860600612953
[C3]. “Cationic transfersomes based topical genetic vaccine against hepatitis B, Sunil MAHOR, Amit RAWAT, Praveen K DUBEY, Prem N GUPTA, Kapil KHATRI, Amit K GOYAL, S P VYAS. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2007) doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.03.006
[C4]. “Engineered polyallylamine nanoparticles for efficient in vitro transfection, Atul Pathak, Anita Aggarwal, Raj K. Kurupati, Soma Patnaik, Archana Swami, Yogendra Singh, Pradeep Kumar, Suresh P. Vyas, Kailash C. Gupta. Pharmaceutical Research (2007) doi: 10.1007/s11095-007-9259-7
[C5]. “Surface modified liposomes for nasal delivery of DNA vaccine, Kapil Khatri, Amit K. Goyal, Prem N. Gupta, Neeraj Mishra, Abhinav Mehta, Suresh P. Vyas. Vaccine (2008) doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.02.058
[C6]. “Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of novel triblock copolymer based nanoparticles for vaccine delivery against hepatitis B, Arvind K. Jain, Amit K. Goyal, Prem N. Gupta, Kapil Khatri, Neeraj Mishra, Abhinav Mehta, Sharad Mangal, Suresh P. Vyas. Journal of Controlled Release (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.02.010
[C7]. “Polyelectrolyte coated multilayered liposomes (nanocapsules for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, Parul Jain, Sanyog Jain, K. N. Prasad, S. K. Jain, Suresh P. Vyas. Molecular Pharmaceutics (2009) doi: 10.1021/mp8002539
[C8]. “Effect of lipid core material on characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles designed for oral lymphatic delivery, Rishi Paliwal, Shivani Rai, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Kapil Khatri, Amit K. Goyal, Neeraj Mishra, Abhinav Mehta, Suresh P. Vyas. Nanomedicine Nanotechnology Biology and Medicine (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2008.08.003
[C9]. “Gene Expression, Biodistribution, and Pharmacoscintigraphic Evaluation of Chondroitin Sulfate−PEI Nanoconstructs Mediated Tumor Gene Therapy, Atul Pathak, Pradeep Kumar, Krishna Chuttani, Sanyog Jain, Anil K. Mishra, Suresh P. Vyas, Kailash C. Gupta. ACS Nano (2009) doi: 10.1021/nn900044f
[C10]. “Efficient tumor targeting by polysaccharide decked polyethylenimine based nanocomposites, Atul Pathak, Archana Swami, Soma Patnaik, Sanyog Jain, Krishna Chuttani, Anil K. Mishra, Suresh P. Vyas, Pradeep Kumar, Kailash C. Gupta. Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology (2009) doi: 10.1166/jbn.2009.1031
[C11]. “Liposome in situ gelling system: Novel carrier based vaccine adjuvant for intranasal delivery of recombinant protein vaccine, Shailja Tiwari, Amit K. Goyal, Neeraj Mishra, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Abhinav Mehta, Devyani Dube, Suresh P. Vyas. Procedia in Vaccinology (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.provac.2009.07.027
[C12C. “Development and characterization of novel carrier gel core liposomes based transmission blocking malaria vaccine, Shailja Tiwari, Amit K. Goyal, Neeraj Mishra, Kapil Khatri, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Abhinav Mehta, Yimin Wu, Suresh P. Vyas. Journal of Controlled Release (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.08.004
[C13]. “Polymeric nanospheres modified with YIGSR peptide for tumor targeting, Praveen K. Dubey, Deepak Singodia, S. P. Vyas. Drug Delivery (2010) doi: 10.3109/10717544.2010.490249
[C14]. “PEG–PLA–PEG block copolymeric nanoparticles for oral immunization against hepatitis B, Arvind K. Jain, Amit K. Goyal, Neeraj Mishra, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Sharad Mangal, Suresh P. Vyas. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2010) doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.12.013
[C15]. “Evaluation of mucoadhesive PLGA microparticles for nasal immunization, Dilip Pawar, Amit K. Goyal, Sharad Mangal, Neeraj Mishra, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Shailja Tiwari, Arvind K. Jain, Suresh P. Vyas. The AAPS Journal (2010) doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9169-1
[C16]. “Pharmaceutical and immunological evaluation of mucoadhesive nanoparticles based delivery system(s) administered intranasally, Sharad Mangal, Dilip Pawar, Neeraj K. Garg, Arvind K. Jain, S.P. Vyas, D.S.V. Raman Rao, K.S. Jaganathan. Vaccine (2011) doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.04.112
[C17]. “Nanoparticle-based immunopotentiation via tetanus toxoid-loaded gelatin and aminated gelatin nanoparticles, M. S. Sudheesh, S. P. Vyas, D. V. Kohli. Drug Delivery (2011) doi: 10.3109/10717544.2010.549525
[C18]. “Novel approaches to oral immunization for hepatitis B, Shailja Tiwari, Suresh P. Vyas. Current Infectious Disease Reports (2011) doi: 10.1007/s11908-010-0152-x
[C19]. “Development, characterization and in vivo assessment of effective lipidic nanoparticles for dermal delivery of fluconazole against cutaneous candidiasis, Madhu Gupta, Suresh P. Vyas. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids (2012) doi: 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2012.01.006
[C20]. “Development and Characterization of Amphotericin B Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis, Swati Gupta, Anuradha Dube, Suresh P. Vyas. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology (2012) doi: 10.2174/2211738511301010054
[C21]. “Evaluation of mucoadhesive carrier adjuvant: toward an oral anthrax vaccine, Sharad Mangal, Dilip Pawar, Udita Agrawal, Arvind K. Jain, Suresh P. Vyas. Artificial Cells Nanomedicine and Biotechnology (2014) doi: 10.3109/21691401.2013.769447
[C22]. “Mannosylated Chitosan Nanoparticles for Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides for Macrophage Targeting, Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana, Dharm Veer Kohli, Suresh Prasad Vyas. BioMed Research International (2014) doi: 10.1155/2014/526391
[C23]. “Development and characterization of LTA-appended chitosan nanoparticles for mucosal immunization against hepatitis B, Neeraj Mishra, Kapil Khatri, Madhu Gupta, Suresh P. Vyas. Artificial Cells Nanomedicine and Biotechnology (2014) doi: 10.3109/21691401.2013.809726